Introduction To Microbiology

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Microbiology is the study of micro organisms such as bacteria, fungi, protozoa and viruses. Many of these organisms are beneficial for human beings. In humans normal microbiota which helps in digestion. While in plants nitrogen fixation which helps in cellulose digestion. Also these microorganisms are used in the industries.


We divide these micro organisms according to their characteristics:

  1. Bacteria
  2. Viruses
  3. Fungi
  4. Protozoa


We use gram stain either positive or negative to characterize them.


We depend on their genome in order to characterize them. That is Double stranded sd RNA/DNA & SS DNA.


We characterize fungi into Mold (Multicellular) & Yeast (Unicellular).


Some protozoan species are parasites and some are predators of bacteria and algae.

Hierarchy of Classification

  1. Domain
  2. Kingdom
  3. Phylum
  4. Class
  5. Order
  6. Family
  7. Genus
  8. Species


There are only three main domain on this planet earth.

  1. Prokaryotic: Bacteria Algae
  2. Eukaryotes: Eukarya

Difference b/w Prokaryotic and Eukaryotes:

Prokaryotic: Absence of cytoplasmic structures like mitochondria, Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum.

Eukaryotes: absense of cell wall except plants and fungi. Also they have different structure of ribosomes.


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Ultrasonography is the use of high-frequency sound waves to generate an image. Because ultrasonography is relatively safe and noninvasive, it has become a useful diagnostic tool in veterinary medicine.1 Veterinary technicians, especially those who wish to learn how to perform ultrasound examinations, should have a basic understanding of ultrasonography: how sound waves are produced and interact with tissue, what types of images can be obtained, how to get the best image, and how to identify common artifacts.

Introduction To Electronic Components

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An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields. Electronic components are mostly industrial products, available in a singular form and are not to be confused with electrical elements, which are conceptual abstractions representing idealized electronic components.

Electronic components have a number of electrical terminals or leads. These leads connect to create an electronic circuit with a particular function (for example an amplifier, radio receiver, or oscillator). Basic electronic components may be packaged discretely, as arrays or networks of like components, or integrated inside of packages such as semiconductor integrated circuits, hybrid integrated circuits, or thick film devices. The following list of electronic components focuses on the discrete version of these components, treating such packages as components in their owner right.